Document Type : Original Article
Desert Research Center
Wheat production is one of the most important grain crops, and the state gives it special attention to improve its production. Wheat is a strategically important crop for Egyptian food security, especially in light of recent fluctuations in its prices both globally and locally. Additionally, it is used in biofuel production in some countries like the USA and Brazil, which can impact global wheat supply. Despite an increase in wheat production in Egypt in recent years, this increase has been offset by a continuous population growth and local consumption, leading to an increase in wheat imports. The study analyzed the relative importance of production costs for different wheat varieties, including Egypt 1, Egypt 2, Giza 171, Giza 168, and Sids 12. The average total costs for these varieties were estimated, with Egypt 1 having costs of approximately 11.7 thousand Egyptian pounds per feddan, Egypt 2 at 11.9 thousand pounds per feddan, Giza 171 at 10.4 thousand pounds per feddan, Giza 168 at 11.8 thousand pounds per feddan, and Sids 12 at 10.5 thousand pounds per feddan. Fixed costs constituted a significant portion of the total costs for each variety, accounting for around 39.4%, 39.3%, 54.3%, 39.2%, and 54.6% of the average total costs, respectively. Net returns per feddan were estimated for each variety, with Egypt 1, Egypt 2, Giza 171, Giza 168, and Sids 12 having returns of approximately 1025.15, 3231.62, 4418.79, 989.52, and 5075.94 Egyptian pounds per feddan, respectively. Production functions were estimated in a logarithmic form to assess economic efficiency, and a cubic cost function was chosen to estimate cost and profit maximization for each wheat variety. Variable costs for these varieties ranged from approximately 7.13 to 4.79 thousand Egyptian pounds per feddan. The research recommends the following: Enhancing the efficiency of productive inputs in agricultural operations for wheat production to increase farmers' productivity and profits. Encouraging farmers to adopt technical recommendations and knowledge through the Agricultural Extension System to improve their productivity. Developing high-quality and high-yield wheat varieties that are more resilient to drought, salinity, and heat. Promoting the cultivation of high-yield wheat varieties, particularly Giza 171, Egypt 1, 2, and Sids 12. Addressing the problems faced by wheat farmers in the study area and finding solutions to increase wheat cultivation and improve per-feddan productivity for the crop.