The women’s Role in the Economic and Social Development in Fayoum Governorate

Document Type : Original Article


Development and Rural Society Research Department - Agricultural Economics Research Institute - Agriculture Research Center.


The research aimed to identify the reasons for the decline in women's participation in the labor force in Fayoum Governorate, by identifying the demographic, social and economic features of women in Fayoum Governorate. A study of the most important determinants that affect the role of women in the economic and social development of a sample of the respondents in Fayoum Governorate, and to identify the most important problems that limit women's contribution to the economic and social development in Fayoum Governorate through a sample of the respondents. The research was conducted on a non-judgmental probability sample consisting of 120 female respondents within the labor force, and those who received financing for their projects either through the Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises Development Agency or from the Livelihood Improvement Project of the Social Affairs.
The results of the research showed that with regard to the female labor force in the governorate, it amounted to about 186.2 thousand females, representing about 17.5% of the total labor force, and about 4.4% of the total population of the governorate during the average period (2017-2020), which means a decrease in the participation of women in the work force. And by distributing the number of females within the labor force to economic activities in Fayoum Governorate, its role in education activity is highlighted and it ranks first among the professions occupied by women at a rate of 44.6%, health and social work activity ranks second among economic activities at a rate of 20%, and agricultural activity comes in the third place at a rate of 8.85 %, followed by the activity of wholesale and retail trade, then the manufacturing industries, at rates of about 4.2% and 3.2% for each of them, respectively.
With regard to the educational situation, Fayoum Governorate is one of the top five governorates at the level of the Republic in terms of the percentage of illiteracy among the population (10 years and over), as it reached about 34%. This percentage rises to reach 56.3% in females, and this percentage is concentrated in the villages of Fayoum Governorate. in cities. As for women’s participation in small and micro projects, the total value of financing that women obtained amounted to about 501 million pounds during the period (2015-2019), representing about 40.4% of the total value of loans granted by the Agency for the Development of Medium, Small and Micro Enterprises in the governorate, in addition to this. To what was presented through the Livelihood Improvement Project, where the number of projects funded through it reached about 1474 projects, with a financing value of about 5 million pounds, with the aim of improving the economic and living conditions of children’s families in community schools in order to combat child labor and protect their right to health and education. A decent life and reducing children's dropout from  education.
To identify the determinants of women's contribution to economic and social activity, the logistic regression model was used, and the most important variables affecting women's contribution to economic activity were the educational level of the respondent, the educational level of the respondent's husband, the continuity of children in education, the availability of food for children and the family, and the possession of animals Income, the respondent owns a smart phone, the place of the respondent's economic activity, the respondent's access to financing for her project, and children's enrollment in education. While the most important variables affecting women's contribution to social activity were the enrollment of children in education, the educational level of the respondent's husband, the participation of the respondent in clubs, the educational level of the respondent, the access of the respondent to social subsidy, and the work of the respondent. Significance of the two models of women's contribution to economic and social activity was found, as the ratio of Log - Lihood was the greatest possibility 35 for the economic activity model, 53 for the social activity model.
As for the obstacles that limit women's participation in economic activity, they varied between production, financing and marketing obstacles, and the respondents differed among themselves on the extent to which they were affected by these constraints. About 63% of the female respondents dealt with this problem, while the problem of poor financing value was one of the most important financing problems and in the first place that the respondents were exposed to, as 60% of them were exposed to this problem, while the problem of lack of paved roads was one of the most important problems facing 86%. Among the respondents in marketing their products, as for the social obstacles, it was found that the husband’s unwillingness and the family’s refusal of women’s participation in NGOs are among the most important of these obstacles, reaching about 67%, followed by the existence of family problems by 7%.
1-    Directing more resources to support the educational process in Fayoum Governorate by increasing literacy classes and expanding the establishment of community schools (one-class schools) and training female students in them on the traditional crafts that characterize Fayoum Governorate.
2-    Developing education and training, including literacy eradication and vocational and skills training, in a way that qualifies them to meet the requirements of the labor market.
3-     Paying attention to providing training courses through the Agency for the Development of Medium, Small and Micro Enterprises that are consistent with the nature of the activity carried out by women and developing their skills.
4-    Establishing a business incubator that includes owners of crafts and the same activities, carried out by the Small, Medium and Micro Enterprises Development Agency.
5-    Women’s participation in exhibitions for free, such as our heritage exhibition, or at nominal prices, or participating in them without paying fees in advance, and then paying these fees after selling the products.
6-    Adoption by the Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises Development Authority of successful experiences that can be cherished and encouraged to work and practice activity.
7-    Increasing the value of loans, especially for women who proved serious about their projects in the first stage.
8-    The importance of following up women in their projects to identify deficiencies and then focus training on these points.
9-    Spreading religious and cultural awareness through advertising campaigns stating the legality of obtaining loans.


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